Introduction: There are no guidelines regarding management of failed pediatric renal transplants. Materials & Methods: We performed a first of its kind multicenter study assessing prevalence of transplant nephrectomy, patient characteristics, and outcomes in pediatric renal transplant recipients with graft failure from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016. Results: Fourteen centers contributed data on 186 pediatric recipients with failed transplants. The 76 recipients that underwent transplant nephrectomy were not significantly different from the 110 without nephrectomy in donor or recipient demographics. Fifty-three percent of graft nephrectomies were within a year of transplant. Graft tenderness prompted transplant nephrectomy in 91% (P <.001). Patients that underwent nephrectomy were more likely to have a prior diagnosis of rejection within 3 months (43% vs 29%; P =.04). Nephrectomy of allografts did not affect time to re-listing, donor source at re-transplant but significantly decreased time to (P =.009) and incidence (P =.0002) of complete cessation of immunosuppression post-graft failure. Following transplant nephrectomy, recipients were significantly more likely to have rejection after re-transplant (18% vs 7%; P =.03) and multiple rejections in first year after re-transplant (7% vs 1%; P =.03). Conclusions: Practices pertaining to failed renal allografts are inconsistent—40% of failed pediatric renal allografts underwent nephrectomy. Graft tenderness frequently prompted transplant nephrectomy. There is no apparent benefit to graft nephrectomy related to sensitization; but timing / frequency of immunosuppression withdrawal is significantly different with slightly increased risk for rejection following re-transplant.
- pediatric re-transplant
- transplant nephrectomy