Objective: Advanced endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with fenestrated and branched stent grafts is increasingly being used to repair complex aortic aneurysms; however, these devices can rotate unpredictably during deployment, leading to device misalignment. The objectives of this study were to quantify the short-term clinical outcomes in patients with intraoperative stent graft rotation and to identify quantitative anatomic markers of the arterial geometry that can predict stent graft rotation preoperatively. Methods: A prospective study evaluating all patients undergoing advanced EVAR was conducted at two university-affiliated hospitals between November 2015 and December 2016. Stent graft rotation (defined as ≥10 degrees) was measured on intraoperative fluoroscopic video of the deployment sequence. Standard preoperative computed tomography angiography imaging was used to calculate the geometric properties of the arterial anatomy. Any in-hospital and 30-day complications were prospectively documented, and a composite outcome of any end-organ ischemia or death was used as the primary end point. Results: Thirty-nine patients undergoing advanced EVAR were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 75 years (interquartile range [IQR], 71-80 years) and a mean aneurysm diameter of 64 mm (IQR, 59-65 mm). The incidence of stent graft rotation was 37% (n = 14), with a mean rotation of 25 degrees (IQR, 21-28 degrees). A nominal logistic regression model identified iliac artery torsion, volume of iliac artery calcification, and stent graft length as the primary predictive factors. The total net torsion and the total volume of calcific plaque were higher in patients with stent graft rotation, 8.9 ± 0.8 mm−1 vs 4.1 ± 0.5 mm−1 (P <.0001) and 1054 ± 144 mm3 vs 525 ± 83 mm3 (P <.01), respectively. The length of the implanted stent grafts was also higher in patients with intraoperative rotation, 172 ± 9 mm vs 156 ± 8 mm (P <.01). The composite outcome of any end-organ ischemia or death was also substantially higher in patients with stent graft rotation (36% vs 0%; P =.004). In addition, patients with stent graft rotation had significantly higher combined rates of type Ib and type III endoleaks (43% vs 8%; P =.03). Conclusions: Patients with intraoperative stent graft rotation have a significantly higher rate of severe postoperative complications, and this is strongly associated with higher levels of iliac artery torsion, calcification, and stent graft length. These findings suggest that preoperative quantitative analysis of iliac artery torsion and calcification may improve risk stratification of patients before advanced EVAR.