Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum: Midterm Outcomes from a Multicenter Cohort

The Collaborative Research from the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society Investigators

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Contemporary multicenter data regarding midterm outcomes for neonates with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum are lacking. We sought to describe outcomes in a contemporary multicenter cohort, determine factors associated with end-states, and evaluate the effect of right ventricular coronary dependency and coronary atresia on transplant-free survival. Neonates treated during 2009–2019 in 19 United States centers were reviewed. Competing risks analysis was performed to determine cumulative risk of each end-state, and multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with each end-state and transplant-free survival. We reviewed 295 patients. Median tricuspid valve Z-score was − 3.06 (25%, 75%: − 4.00, − 1.52). Final end-state was biventricular repair for 45 patients (15.2%), one-and-a half ventricle for 16 (5.4%), Fontan for 75 (25.4%), cardiac transplantation for 29 (9.8%), and death for 54 (18.3%). Seventy-six patients (25.7%) remained in mixed circulation. Cumulative risk estimate of death was 10.9%, 16.1%, 16.9%, and 18.8% at 1, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Tricuspid valve Z-score was inversely, and coronary atresia positively associated with death or transplantation [odds ratio (OR) = 0.46, (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29–0.75, p < 0.001) and OR = 3.75 (95% CI 1.46–9.61, p = 0.011), respectively]. Right ventricular coronary dependency and left coronary atresia had a significant effect on transplant-free survival (log-rank p < 0.001). In a contemporary multicenter cohort of patients with PAIVS, consisting predominantly of patients with moderate-to-severe right ventricular hypoplasia, we observed favorable survival outcomes. Right ventricular coronary dependency and left, but not right, coronary atresia significantly worsens transplant-free survival.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Cardiology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Congenital heart surgery
  • Heart defect
  • Pediatric cardiology
  • Postoperative outcomes
  • Pulmonary atresia


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