Background: Cryoablation (Cryo) has augmented radiofrequency (RF) as the ablation energy choice for most supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). Although initial acute results and more recent, but limited, 3-36-month follow-up studies have been reported, more longer follow-up information is required to determine actual efficacy. Methods: Data from patients with structurally normal hearts who underwent reentrant forms of SVT ablation at our institution from January 2005 to December 2009 were reviewed. These included demographics, clinical and electrophysiologic findings, and ablative energies used. Following apparent acute success, all patients were then reevaluated for any potential recurrences of SVT or preexcitation up to 5 years later. Results: A total of 155 patients (83 male) were reviewed (mean age 13.4 ± 3.7 years). Ablations were predominantly right-sided (75%). Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia was seen in 74% and atrioventricular node reciprocating tachycardia (AVNRT) in 17% of patients. For concerns of atrioventricular node integrity, Cryo ± RF was user-preferred for anteroseptal accessory fiber locations and AVNRT. Acute success rate was 98% and chronic 83.2% over the next 5 years. Among patients with accessory pathways, recurrence was pathway number and location dependent: significantly higher (P < 0.05) if they were right anterior-anteroseptal, multiple, or with a broad-distribution pattern. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates with use of RF or its combination with Cryo. Conclusion: Radiofrequency ablation and Cryo are both effective therapies for pediatric patients. Although use of Cryo with RF in combination may enhance safety while affording comparable success, risk of recurrence still persists in the current era among patients depending on accessory pathways connection location and characteristics.
- Supraventricular tachycardia