Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

Gengchen Liu, Mahmoud Alomari, Bunyamin Sahin, Samuel E. Snelgrove, Jeffrey Edwards, Axel Mellinger, Tolga Kaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133702
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number13
StatePublished - Mar 30 2015


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