Role of protein kinase C in ischemic "conditioning": From first evidence to current perspectives

Boris Z. Simkhovich, Karin Przyklenk, Robert A. Kloner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Since the discovery of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) 26 years ago, numerous studies attempted to determine the mechanism of this powerful form of cardioprotection. One of the first proposed pathways of IPC suggested that the preconditioning stimulus activated phospholipase C via G-protein, and diacylglycerol released from phospholipid moieties activated protein kinase C (PKC) by translocating it from the cytosol to the sarcolemmal membranes. The major protective isoform of PKC was found to be the PKC-ε. Despite some contradictions and controversies, today even the most skeptical opponents acknowledge that PKC plays a significant role in the mechanism of IPC. During recent years, both the role and the place of PKC-ε in the mechanism of IPC have been revised. The current review presents the evolution of the "PKC theory" and summarizes the most recent data regarding the role of PKC in IPC. In addition to classical IPC, PKC appears to play a role in the mechanisms of newer conditioning protocols, that is, remote IPC and ischemic postconditioning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-532
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2013


  • ischemic preconditioning
  • postconditioning
  • protein kinase C
  • remote preconditioning


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