Secondary low-voltage circuit models-how good is good enough?

Jouni Peppanen, Celso Rocha, Jason A. Taylor, Roger C. Dugan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Utility power distribution system analysis has traditionally been performed considering only the primary, or medium-voltage (MV), system. Distributed energy resources are increasingly being located on the secondary, or low-voltage, side of the distribution transformer, requiring the low-voltage system to be included in the analysis. However, most distribution system models do not include secondary circuits at all or they are modeled with limited detail. In the absence of the appropriate model data, secondary circuits models commonly rely on simplifications such as single-phase equivalent models, constant power factor, etc. This paper highlights the implications of some of these assumptions and provides guidance in terms of how more accurate secondary models are needed. This paper shows that split-phase secondary circuits can be modeled accurately with single-phase equivalents under perfectly balanced conditions. It also shows that assuming constant power factor or using smart meter measurements with practical 15-min, or larger, measurement time-granularity can lead to considerable errors in simulated secondary circuit losses or voltages.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2017 IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference, REPC 2017
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781509058310
StatePublished - Jun 30 2017
Externally publishedYes
Event2017 IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference, REPC 2017 - Columbus, United States
Duration: Apr 23 2017Apr 26 2017

Publication series

NameProceedings - 2017 IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference, REPC 2017


Conference2017 IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference, REPC 2017
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Power Distribution
  • Power Distribution Planning
  • Power System Measurements
  • Power System Modeling
  • Power System Simulation


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