Hemoptysis is an uncommon presentation in children. It can be caused by several systemic and pulmonary disorders. Bleeding from an anomalous arterial supply to normal lung segments with no underlying pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders was widely reported in adults but is extremely rare in the pediatric age group. Here we describe 4 previously normal children and one girl with chronic lung disease, secondary to bronchopumonary dysplasia, with acute and significant hemoptysis of variable severity. Extensive clinical and laboratory investigations did not identify any reasonable causes for their symptoms. Cardiac catheterization showed dilated anomalous systemic arteries that supplied a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in one case and normal basal lung segments in the other 4 cases. Embolization of the anomalous arterial collaterals led to occlusion of these arteries and the cessation of further hemoptysis.
- Aberrant arteries
- Arteriovenous malformation