Sex Differences in Outcomes Following Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

Ben Li, Naomi Eisenberg, Miranda Witheford, Thomas F. Lindsay, Thomas L. Forbes, Graham Roche-Nagle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Importance: Sex differences in aortic surgery outcomes are commonly reported. However, data on ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) repair outcomes in women vs men are limited. Objective: To assess differences in perioperative and long-term mortality following rAAA repair in women vs men. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Vascular Quality Initiative database, which prospectively captures information on patients who undergo vascular surgery across 796 academic and community hospitals in North America. All patients who underwent endovascular or open rAAA repair between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2019, were included. Outcomes were assessed up to January 1, 2020. Exposures: Patient sex. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics were recorded, and differences between women vs men were assessed using independent t test and χ2test. The primary outcomes were in-hospital and 8-year mortality. Associations between sex and outcomes were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results: A total of 1160 (21.9%) women and 4148 (78.1%) men underwent rAAA repair during the study period. There was a similar proportion of endovascular repairs in women and men (654 [56.4%] vs 2386 [57.5%]). Women were older (mean [SD] age, 75.8 [9.3] vs 71.7 [9.6] years), more likely to have chronic kidney disease (718 [61.9%] vs 2184 [52.7%]), and presented with ruptured aneurysms of smaller diameters (mean [SD] 68 [18.2] vs 78 [30.2] mm). In-hospital mortality was higher in women (34.4% vs 26.6%; odds ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.25-1.66), which persisted after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics (adjusted odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12-1.66; P =.002). Eight-year survival was lower in women (36.7% vs 49.5%; hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.50; P =.02), which persisted when stratified by endovascular and open repair. This survival difference existed in both the US and Canada. Variables associated with long-term mortality in women included older age and chronic kidney disease. Conclusions and Relevance: Women who underwent rAAA repair had higher perioperative and 8-year mortality rates following both endovascular and open repair compared with men. Older age and higher rates of chronic kidney disease in women were associated with higher mortality rates. These findings suggest that future studies should assess the reasons for these disparities and whether opportunities exist to improve AAA care for women..

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E2211336
JournalJAMA network open
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

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