Weak interaction in nuclei represents a well-known venue for testing many of the fundamental symmetries of the Standard Model. In particular, neutrinoless double-β decay offers the possibility to test beyond Standard Model theories predicting that neutrinos are Majorana fermions and the lepton number conservation is violated. This paper focuses on an effective field theory approach to neutrinoless double-β decay for extracting information regarding the properties of the beyond Standard Model Lagrangian responsible for this process. We use shell model nuclear matrix elements and the latest experimental lower limits for the half-lives to extract 12 lepton-number-violating parameters of five nuclei of experimental interest and lower limits for the energy scales of the new physics. Using the most stringent limits that we obtain for the values of the lepton-number-violating parameters, we predict new half-life limits for the other nuclei of experimental interest, in the case of 12 neutrino double-β decay mechanisms. We provide an analysis that could reveal valuable information regarding the dominant neutrinoless double-β decay mechanism, if experimental half-life data become available for different isotopes.