A cross-sectional descriptive study of the presence of 54 psychological, physical, behavioral, and emotional (i.e., clinical) symptoms was completed using 3 samples of police officers: current undercover officers, former undercover officers, and officers without undercover policing experience. Chi-square analyses indicated that current undercover officers reported significantly fewer clinical symptoms than the other samples. Former undercover officers reported significantly higher frequencies of 15 clinical symptoms. Symptom patterns were reviewed and explained in terms of adjustment/readjustment to the undercover assignment, denial of symptoms, and buffers to the impact of potential occupational stressors.
- psychological symptoms