Terminal osseous dysplasia and pigmentary defects: Clinical characterization of a novel male lethal X-linked syndrome

Carlos A. Bacino, David W. Stockton, Roberta A. Sierra, Heidi A. Heilstedt, Raymond Lewandowski, Ignatia B. Van Den Veyver

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25 Scopus citations


We describe a new syndrome of distal limb anomalies and pigmentary skin defects in 10 females of a large, four-generation pedigree. The family was ascertained through a 4-month-old infant girl with multiple anomalies, including hypertelorism, iris colobomas, low-set ears, midface hypoplasia, punched-out pigmentary abnormalities over the face and scalp, generalized brachydactyly, and digital fibromatosis. No affected males were identified in this pedigree. Affected females had a lower than normal male-to-female ratio of liveborn offspring, and some of them also had a history of several miscarriages. These findings, together with a significant variability in the phenotype of the affected females, suggest that this condition is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion, with prenatal male lethality, and that X-inactivation plays an important role in the phenotypic expression of the disease. The syndrome has been described twice in the literature, but only in sporadic cases; it was therefore not recognized as a mendelian entity. Because the most consistent findings are anomalies of the distal skeleton of the limbs and localized pigmentary abnormalities of the skin, we named the syndrome 'terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects'. This condition, though rare, can be added to the small group of male lethal X-linked dominant disorders in humans. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-112
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2000


  • Digital fibromas
  • Male lethal X-linked
  • Multiple frenula
  • Pigmentary defects
  • Terminal limb defects
  • Terminal osseous dysplasia
  • X-linked dominant


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