The Adult with Post-operative Congenital Heart Disease: a Systematic Echocardiographic Approach

Amrit Misra, Chenni Sriram, Pooja Gupta, Richard Humes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: This article attempts to review some of the commonly seen repaired congenital heart defects in the adult population (ACHD), with a focus on important echocardiographic findings that may assist a practitioner in recognizing and managing this group of patients. Recent Findings: The prevalence of ACHD population is increasing, and currently, there are over 1 million adults with congenital heart disease. At the current time, the total number of ACHD patients exceeds the total number of pediatric patients with CHD. The recently released 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) recommends transthoracic echocardiography for all ACHD patients for initial assessment and serial assessment as needed (class of recommendation: I) and echocardiography remains the mainstay for diagnosing and managing these patients in adjunct with other available imaging modalities. Summary: It is imperative for all cardiologists to be familiar with the echocardiographic features of the commonly seen repaired CHD in adult population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number29
JournalCurrent Cardiology Reports
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2019


  • Adult congenital heart disease
  • Echocardiography


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