Objectives: To assess the effect of pulmonary hypertension on neonatal intensive care unit mortality and hospital readmission through 1 year of corrected age in a large multicenter cohort of infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Study design: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 1677 infants born <32 weeks of gestation with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia enrolled in the Children's Hospital Neonatal Consortium with records linked to the Pediatric Health Information System. Results: Pulmonary hypertension occurred in 370 out of 1677 (22%) infants. During the neonatal admission, pulmonary hypertension was associated with mortality (OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.10-4.73, P <.001), ventilator support at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (60% vs 40%, P <.001), duration of ventilation (72 IQR 30-124 vs 41 IQR 17-74 days, P <.001), and higher respiratory severity score (3.6 IQR 0.4-7.0 vs 0.8 IQR 0.3-3.3, P <.001). At discharge, pulmonary hypertension was associated with tracheostomy (27% vs 9%, P <.001), supplemental oxygen use (84% vs 61%, P <.001), and tube feeds (80% vs 46%, P <.001). Through 1 year of corrected age, pulmonary hypertension was associated with increased frequency of readmission (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.38, 95% CI 1.18-1.63, P <.001). Conclusions: Infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia-associated pulmonary hypertension have increased morbidity and mortality through 1 year of corrected age. This highlights the need for improved diagnostic practices and prospective studies evaluating treatments for this high-risk population.
- bronchopulmonary dysplasia
- pulmonary hypertension