The MMPI-2: History, Interpretation, and Clinical Issues

Andrew C. Cox, Nathan C. Weed, James N. Butcher

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is the most widely used personality assessment instrument in research and clinical practice. This article orients new users to the test and highlights a number of current issues with the test that may also be of interest to experienced users. It briefly illustrates the development of MMPI-2, from its origins in the University of Minnesota Hospitals to its current form. The article then describes some of its key features and the contributions they make to assessing personality and psychopathology: Validity Scales, Clinical Scales, Content Scales, Supplementary Scales, Personality Psychopathology Five Scales, and Restructured Clinical Scales. It concludes by discussing specific clinical issues related to the use of, and new developments involving, the MMPI-2: assessment of ethnic-minority clients, international adaptation of the MMPI-2, short forms, and computer applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOxford Handbook of Personality Assessment
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9780199940592
ISBN (Print)9780195366877
StatePublished - Sep 18 2012


  • Clinical scales
  • Computer applications
  • Content scales
  • Ethnic-minority clients
  • MMPI-2
  • Personality
  • Personality assessment
  • Psychopathology
  • Short forms
  • Validity scales


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