The November 1993 ionospheric storm: Comparison of observed and modeled response

Phil G. Richards, Phil J. Wilkinson, Kent L. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A major magnetic storm occurred near midnight on November 3, 1993 when Kp reached 7 and the magnetic activity remained high for two days. The ionospheric response was recorded by a network of ionosondes in the Australian region. Most stations recorded a positive phase (increase) in NmF2 on November 4 which was well produced by the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) model despite a large relative increase in the molecular neutral densities. There was a negative phase (decrease) on November 5 at the higher mid-latitude stations but not at the low latitude stations. The negative phase was not well reproduced by the model. The storm generated large winds blowing from the pole to the equator for two days causing the measured hmF2 to exceed the quiet time values by 50-100 km. The quiet-time winds show a pronounced semidiurnal tide at all latitudes with a phase shift of about 1 hour for every 15 degrees increase in latitude.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1665-1668
Number of pages4
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1997


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