Objective: Correlate skin temperature and motoneuron-pool recruitment during cooling and rewarming. Design: Within-subjects, correlational analysis. H reflex was correlated to ankle-skin temperature over time using a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and a coefficient of determination (R2). Subjects: Ten healthy, physically active college students. Measurements: Soleus H reflex and ankle-skin interface temperature were measured during ice application and rewarming. Electrical stimulation was delivered to produce 75% of each subjects maximum H reflex. Results: Ankle cooling (r = -.95, P < .05) exhibited a strong inverse relationship with soleus H reflex. A positive correlation was observed between rewarming (r = .74, P < .05) and soleus H reflex. Conclusions: Temperature accounts for nearly 90% (R2= .90) of the variability in the soleus H reflex during cooling and 55% (R2= .55) during rewarming, suggesting that more motoneurons are recruited as temperature decreases. These interactions appear to involve both local and central nervous system functions.