To better understand the role of chronotropic impairment on exercise performance after the atrial switch (Mustard) operation, 20 patients who had undergone this operation for uncomplicated d-transposition of the great arteries exercised to maximal volition using a 1 min incremental treadmill protocol. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and minute ventilation were monitored continuously. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were obtained before testing to calculate the right ventricular inflow volume indexed to body surface area. All patients achieved maximal aerobic capacity based on their ventilatory patterns and respiratory exchange ratio. Maximal heart rate was reduced (175 beats/min; 87% of predicted for age) and maximal oxygen consumption was decreased (31 ml/kg per min; 75% of predicted for age and gender). There was no correlation between maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate. Right ventricular volume index, however, had a significant inverse correlation with maximal heart rate (r = −0.62, p < 0.005). There was no correlation between right ventricular volume index and heart rate at rest. These results suggest that decreased maximal oxygen consumption in patients after the Mustard procedure is not a result of chronotropic impairment. Right ventricular dilation may be a compensatory response to chronotropic impairment.