Validation of a Korean MMPI-2 Hwa-Byung scale using a Korean normative sample

Holly Ketterer, Kyunghee Han, Nathan C. Weed

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3 Scopus citations


The psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of Hwa-Byung (HB), a Korean culture bound syndrome, using an updated version of the Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, were examined in Korean normative sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both the first-order four-factor model and the single second-order factor model fit the data well, but the latter may be superior because of its parsimony. The HB scale correlated modestly with age, sex, SES, and problems with family and finance. However, it showed substantial correlations with spouse ratings items that were identified a priori as prospective HB correlates, indicating excellent concurrent validity. The limitations of the study and the need for future studies employing HB patients were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-385
Number of pages7
JournalCultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2010


  • Culture bound syndrome
  • Hwa-Byung
  • Korean MMPI-2
  • Scale development


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