Validation of patient-reported vaso-occlusive crisis day as an endpoint in sickle cell disease studies

Karin S. Coyne, Brooke M. Currie, Michael Callaghan, Kathleen W. Wyrwich, Sheryl Pease, Christine L. Baker, Steven Arkin, Debra D. Pittman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). Historically, VOC episodes have been assessed through medical utilization, thereby excluding events managed at home. In order to validate a daily patient-reported outcome for patients with SCD to accurately report their VOC status and experience of a pain crisis, a SCD Diary was included in Evaluation of Longitudinal Pain Study in Sickle Cell Disease (ELIPSIS), a longitudinal, six-month, non-interventional study. The daily patient-completed diary included a description of SCD pain crisis, followed by questions on: pain crisis in the past 24 h (VOC Day question; respective response yes or no), worst pain, tiredness, and functioning. Thirty-five patients with SCD participated in ELIPSIS. Analyses were performed to validate the patient-reported VOC Day. Mean symptoms and functioning scores on the first or last VOC Day of a VOC Event were compared using t-tests with the mean of the three non-VOC Days before and after the event. Mean severity of symptoms and functioning scores on all VOC Days compared to all non-VOC Days were higher, with statistically significant mean differences between first/last VOC Days and respective three non-VOC Days (p's <.01). A subset of patients (n = 15) and caregivers (n = 9) were interviewed to evaluate their understanding of the SCD Diary questions. Nearly all confirmed that the pain crisis description accurately described the VOC experience, and participants expressed confidence differentiating SCD crisis pain from everyday pain. These results demonstrate patients can reliably report their experiences with VOC-related pain crises using the SCD Diary.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-237
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Haematology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • daily diary
  • patient-report outcome
  • sickle cell disease
  • trial endpoint
  • vaso-occlusive


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