Waging Peace Through Symphonic Discourse in the Sudan–Uganda Conflicts

Michael J. Papa, Jeffrey Mapendere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In 1999, former US President Carter and The Carter Center (TCC) negotiated the Nairobi Agreement (NA) restoring diplomatic relations between Sudan and Uganda. The focus of this study was on the diplomatic activities undertaken by TCC to implement the NA from 2000 to 2004. Our primary purpose was to stimulate new thinking about the communicative dimensions of peacemaking in complicated hostile environments. Based on our analysis of TCC’s involvement in the peace implementation process in Sudan and Uganda, we found that the implementation of a peace agreement required significant use of symphonic discourse (SD). SD was displayed in the following ways: (a) integration of heterogeneous material, (b) collaborating with multiple groups, (c) combining and reconciling harmonious and acrimonious discourses, (d) learning through interaction in a community and (e) climax as a moment of recognizing what has already been achieved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-72
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Creative Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018


  • Conflict
  • Sudan
  • Uganda
  • diplomacy
  • peace
  • symphonic discourse


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